Fossil-calibrated molecular phylogeny of atlantid heteropods (Gastropoda, Pterotracheoidea)

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Background: The aragonite shelled, planktonic gastropod family Atlantidae (shelled heteropods) is extra more likely to be one in every of many first groups to be impacted by imminent ocean changes, along with ocean warming and ocean acidification. With a fossil file spanning a minimum of 100 Ma, atlantids have expert and survived global-scale ocean changes and extinction events beforehand. Nonetheless, the diversification patterns and tempo of evolution on this family are largely unknown.


Outcomes: Based on a concatenated most likelihood phylogeny of three genes (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 mitochondrial DNA, 28S and 18S ribosomal rRNA) we current that the three extant genera of the family Atlantidae, Atlanta, Protatlanta and Oxygyrus, sort monophyletic groups. The genus Atlanta is reduce up into two groups, one exhibiting smaller, successfully ornamented shells, and the other having greater, a lot much less ornamented shells.

The fossil file, along with a fossil-calibrated phylogeny, suggests that giant scale atlantid extinction was accompanied by considerable and quick diversification over the previous 25 Ma, in all probability pushed by vicariance events.


Conclusions: Now confronted with a rapidly altering stylish ocean, the pliability of atlantids to survive earlier world change crises presents some optimism that they’re able to persist by way of the Anthropocene.

 

Molecular Phylogeny and Morphology of Amphisphaeria (= Lepteutypa) (Amphisphaeriaceae)

Amphisphaeriaceous taxa (fungi) are saprobes on decaying picket in terrestrial, mangrove, and freshwater habitats. The generic boundaries of the family have traditionally been based on morphology, and the delimitation of genera has always been tough. 

Amphisphaeria species have clypeate ascomata and 1-septate ascospores and a coelomycetous asexual morph. Lepteutypa is completely totally different from Amphisphaeria in having eutypoid stromata and higher than 1-septate ascospores. These main characters have been used for segregation of Lepteutypa from Amphisphaeria for a really very long time.

Nonetheless, the above characters are overlapping amongst Amphisphaeria and Lepteutypa species. Attributable to this truth, proper right here we synonymized Lepteutypa under Amphisphaeria based on holomorphic morphology and multigene phylogeny. Extra, our cluster analysis reveals the connection between seven morphological traits amongst Amphisphaeria/Lepteutypa species and suggests these morphologies mustn’t specific to each genus.

Three new species (i.e., Amphisphaeria camelliaeA. curvaticonidia, and A. micheliae) are launched based on morphology and LSU-ITS-RPB2-TUB2 phylogenies. Furthermore, the monotypic genus Trochilispora, which had been accepted in Amphisphaeriaceae, is revisited and synonymized under Hymenopleella and positioned in Sporocadaceae.

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